Prenatal Learning and its Relevance to Dog Breeding

Applied dog breeding is a complex practice that encompasses various factors, including genetics, health, temperament, and physical traits. One often overlooked aspect in the breeding process is the role of prenatal learning and the influence of maternal stress during pregnancy on the development and behavior of puppies. Scent & Sound Recognition Research suggests that puppies … Read more

Early Socialization in Canines: Influences and Outcomes

The early socialization period in puppies is a critical phase that shapes their adult behavior, emotional well-being, and ability to form relationships with both humans and other animals. This review aims to provide an overview of the various factors that influence a puppy’s socialization and the long-term consequences of inadequate or negative experiences during … Read more

The Impact of Early Handling on English Shepherd Puppy Development

The neonatal period, comprising the first two weeks of a puppy’s life, is a critical phase for growth and development. While the mother dog (bitch) is primarily responsible for providing warmth, nutrition, and hygiene, the role of the owner in ensuring the mother’s well-being and inspecting the puppies for signs of illness or accidents … Read more

The Startle Reflex: A Pivotal Milestone in Puppy Development

This article explores the startle reaction to sound as a reliable and easily observable indicator of a puppy’s sensory development, particularly hearing. The emergence of this reflex is closely associated with various developmental changes, marking the end of the transition period and the beginning of the socialization period. The importance of exposure to diverse … Read more