The Key Stages in a Dog’s Early Development

Canine ontogeny, or the development of dogs from conception to adulthood, is a complex and intriguing process. It is characterized by a series of six “natural” stages: (1) the prenatal period; (2) the neonatal period; (3) the transition period; (4) the socialization period; (5) the juvenile period; and (6) the pubertal period. Understanding these stages … Read more

The Startle Reflex: A Pivotal Milestone in Puppy Development

This article explores the startle reaction to sound as a reliable and easily observable indicator of a puppy’s sensory development, particularly hearing. The emergence of this reflex is closely associated with various developmental changes, marking the end of the transition period and the beginning of the socialization period. The importance of exposure to diverse … Read more