The Key Stages in a Dog’s Early Development

Canine ontogeny, or the development of dogs from conception to adulthood, is a complex and intriguing process. It is characterized by a series of six “natural” stages: (1) the prenatal period; (2) the neonatal period; (3) the transition period; (4) the socialization period; (5) the juvenile period; and (6) the pubertal period. Understanding these stages … Read more

The Impact of Early Handling on English Shepherd Puppy Development

The neonatal period, comprising the first two weeks of a puppy’s life, is a critical phase for growth and development. While the mother dog (bitch) is primarily responsible for providing warmth, nutrition, and hygiene, the role of the owner in ensuring the mother’s well-being and inspecting the puppies for signs of illness or accidents … Read more