The Impact of Early Handling on English Shepherd Puppy Development


The neonatal period, comprising the first two weeks of a puppy’s life, is a critical phase for growth and development. While the mother dog (bitch) is primarily responsible for providing warmth, nutrition, and hygiene, the role of the owner in ensuring the mother’s well-being and inspecting the puppies for signs of illness or accidents cannot be understated. This short article explores the potential benefits of early handling and socialization of puppies, drawing parallels to research conducted on other species. Through gentle handling, puppies may experience enhanced socialization, stress tolerance, habituation, and brain development, leading to well-adjusted adult dogs.


The neonatal period is a crucial time for puppies, as they are entirely dependent on their mother for care and protection. It is during this time that early handling and socialization can profoundly impact a puppy’s development. While there is no direct evidence in dogs, research in other species, such as rodents (Levine, 1962; Denenberg, 1962), suggests that young animals benefit from the stimulation of handling. This paper aims to discuss the potential benefits of early handling and socialization in puppies during the neonatal period.

Benefits of Early Handling

  1. Socialization: Early interaction with humans during the neonatal period helps puppies form strong social bonds and become more comfortable around people. By exposing puppies to various human interactions, they can develop into well-socialized and friendly adult dogs.
  2. Stress tolerance: Gentle handling during the neonatal period can improve a puppy’s ability to cope with stress later in life. Early exposure to mild stressors can lead to increased resilience, enabling puppies to adapt better to new situations and challenges as they grow.
  3. Habituation: Early handling can familiarize puppies with being touched and handled, making them more comfortable with grooming, veterinary visits, and other routine care tasks. This familiarity can contribute to a well-adjusted adult dog that is easier to manage and care for.
  4. Improved brain development: Early stimulation, such as gentle handling, can promote brain development and enhance cognitive abilities in puppies. This may lead to better problem-solving skills and learning capacity, ultimately contributing to an intelligent and adaptable adult dog.


The neonatal period is a critical time for puppies, and the role of the owner in supporting the mother dog and gently handling the puppies is essential. Early handling and socialization during this period can have long-lasting effects on a puppy’s development, positively impacting their socialization, stress tolerance, habituation, and brain development. By investing time and care into early handling and socialization practices, owners can help puppies develop into well-adjusted, confident, and healthy adult dogs.


  1. Denenberg, V. H. (1962). Critical periods, stimulus input, and emotional reactivity: a theory of infantile stimulation. Psychological Review, 69(4), 335-351.
  2. Levine, S. (1962). Plasma-free corticosteroid response to electric shock in rats stimulated in infancy. Science, 135(3507), 795-796.
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Tony Bierman, "The Impact of Early Handling on English Shepherd Puppy Development," OBTESA, Accessed May 31, 2023,